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Pelvic floor pain and Dysfunction

March 24 | 2022
Posted by Erin Mills Physiotherapy

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What is pelvic pain and pelvic floor dysfunction?

There are a number of conditions which cause pain and pelvic floor dysfunction. It is because of trigger points in certain tissues or other conditions which cause the pain. However, most of the conditions are treated with physiotherapy interventions.

Pelvic area

Pelvic pain and dysfunction

Common conditions related with internal pelvic structures:

Provoked vestibulodynia: It is the condition in which your pelvic area is very sensitive to touch or pressure. You will feel pain with light touch, pressure, inserting tampons, wearing tight pants or during intercourse. However,  you will also feel urinary urgency as a secondary symptom. It results from tightness in the pelvic floor muscles.

Vaginismus: You feel difficulty during  any vaginal penetration leading to avoidance of sexual activity or internal pelvic examination.  As a result, you will feel pain during such activity.

Bladder pain syndrome: There is pain and pressure with urge to urinate at any time. Also, as a result of this you will get an increased urge to urinate. Symptoms usually starts with bladder infection. However, pain eases when bladder is empty.

Dysmenorrhea: This condition includes painful cramps that starts in uterus during mensuration. It affects about 90% of the women. There are a number of  factors including pelvic adhesions, pelvic inflammatory disease and cervical stenosis which causes this condition.

pelvic pain

Pelvic pain

Conditions related to activities and damage to structures:

Dyspareunia: It is pain with intercourse in the absence of any disease. It is because of episiotomy, perineal tear, lack of mobility of cervix or the ligaments of uterus. Also, from conditions like bladder pain, overactive pelvic floor muscles and inflammation in vaginal area.

Coccyx pain:  It is the pain in tail bone area associated with sitting, sit to stand, sexual activity, or with bowel movements. Usually it is caused by trauma, inflammation or pelvic floor muscle imbalance.

Conditions involving neurological structures:

Pudendal Neuralgia: There is pain and numbness in the area supplied by nerve from anus to penis or clitoris. Pain is associated with sitting, fecal and urinary incontinence.  Also, are other underlying conditions that can restrict the pelvic mobility leading to compression of pudendal nerve.

Male pelvic pain issues:

Certain conditions such as dysfunction of pelvic muscles, non-bacterial inflammation of prostate, Pudendal neuralgia, anal fissures, Coccydynia, bladder pain causes pelvic pain in male patients.

If you want more information about the conditions which cause pelvic pain visit this link https://www.onhealth.com/content/1/pelvic_pain_causes

What to do when you experience any above symptoms?

Pelvic floor therapist helps you with thorough assessment and  treatment based on the diagnosis. Also, educate regarding the cause of the pain. Managing with home exercise program.

Pelvic health

Treatment techniques done by pelvic floor physiotherapists:

For vestibulodynia:

Physiotherapy is considered as the first line of treatment for this condition. You will be treated with tissue care, manual techniques for tender points, treatment of muscle imbalance, lengthening exercises or relaxation techniques. Also, it includes education like avoid wearing tight clothes and diet modification.  Moreover,  will teach you techniques to treat urinary urgency with home care program.

For Dyspareunia:

Relaxation techniques along with dilator insertion helps to relieve tension in the vaginal area. Pelvic therapist will  releases scar tissue in the vaginal area which reduces pain. Also,  soft tissue techniques are used to improve the mobility of the cervix, ligaments of the uterus, and scar mobilization.

Bladder pain syndrome:  Releasing the tension in pelvic floor muscles and posture correction helps to reduce your symptoms. Incontinence related to the same can be treated with pelvic floor muscle training, positioning and certain stretches of the muscles in the pelvic floor area.

Vaginismus: Treatment involves stretching of pelvic floor tissues with external and internal techniques, scar mobilization, muscle overactivity with dilators and relaxation techniques.

Dysmenorrhea: Techniques involve breaking the adhesions in the pelvic floor area and release the narrowing in the cervix. In addition, relaxation techniques, stretches, soft tissue release of the muscles around the pelvis also help to reduce the pain.

For damage during any activity:

Pudendal neuralgia: It can be treated through nerve release, stretches of the tissues compressing the nerve, and posture correction. Sensory re-education to reduce the numbness in the pudendal nerve supply.

Coccyx pain: Treatment involves pelvic floor relaxation techniques,  mobilization of coccyx. It can be mobilized through internal and external mobilization along with the soft tissue release of the structures in that area. Proper positioning with the coccyx cushion, certain exercises to improve the mobility of the pelvic floor will also help to reduce the pain the coccyx.

Male pelvic pain: Treatment includes release of pelvic floor muscles to ease up the pain. Also, treated by stretches, soft tissue release, positioning, mobilization of the coccyx, relaxation techniques and education.


However, If you notice any symptoms or issues with your pelvic health, it’s important to take steps as soon as possible. As a result, early treatment can reduce the risk for complications. Book a consultation at PhysioNOW with a Registered Physiotherapist today.


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